How To Create a Personal Learning Environment to Stay Relevant in 2013

“Our understanding of learning has expanded at a rate that has far outpaced our conceptions of teaching. A growing appreciation for the porous boundaries between the classroom and life experience…has created not only promising changes but also disruptive moments in teaching.” EDUCAUSE Review, 2012

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This quote from Disrupting Ourselves: The Problem of Learning in Higher Education (Bass, 2012), gives a good a reason as any for educators to develop a Personal learning Environment [PLE]; a space where we can keep up with the experimental modes of learning, instruction, changing pedagogy and instructional methods that surfaced in 2012. In a previous post I introduced the concept of PLEs and touched on why educators may want to consider developing a PLE for 2013. In this post I’ll outline how educators can develop their own PLE, where to start, and I’ll provide specific action steps, and what tools to use. First though, I’ll share three convincing reasons why we should get serious about PLEs—why they aren’t just for students.

Three Reasons Why Educators Need a PLE
Education is in a phase of disruption (not news to anyone)—and it’s not just a blip or a bump, but is what Harvard professor and author Clayton Christenson describes as disruptive innovation. This concept describes what is happening in higher education now. We can see disruption in the new forms of course delivery  (i.e. Udacity, Cousera), teaching methods (i.e. flipped classrooms), and new learning models (i.e. competency based learning). These experimental forms of teaching (MOOCs) and assessing (peer review, assessment centers) are changing how educators teach, and impact the student/instructor relationship. Below are three [convincing] reasons why educators should consider creating a PLE:

  1. We need to disrupt ourselves: The model of higher education is at a turning point. PLEs provide a framework for us to expand our knowledge in our areas of expertise, and in teaching and instructional methods that are and will be appropriate and relevant for the digital era.
  2. The Instructor’s role has changed. The learner is moving to the center of the learning and teaching model, and relies upon a variety of sources for learning. PLEs will help instructors not only stay relevant in his or her field, but will provide an opportunity to learn how to use tools that will enhance instructional methods and adapt to the changing paradigm.
  3. Access to the Internet has changed how we teach and learn—forever. New tools devices, and applications are changing our culture and society. Education is not immune. We need to adapt and respond—PLEs will help us to do so appropriately by responding from a position of knowledge and understanding.

Creating a PLE: Where to Start
Begin with a model: As I wrote about before a personal learning environment is considered to be a concept rather than an entity—and concepts need a framework or model to flesh out the details.  As with any other model, a diagram is helpful in describing, shaping and explaining the concept. However, by the very nature of PLEs each diagram will be unique. If you peruse this site, you will see what I mean, no two are the same.

Personal Learning Environment: Janson Hews
Personal Learning Environment: Janson Hews (Photo credit: Janson Hews)

There are several helpful articles describing how to create a PLE on the Web, including several with a focus on creating a Personal Learning Network (a component of the PLE). Below are guidelines gleaned from the resources collected, which I’ve compiled into four steps.

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Chris Sessums “Weblog Brainstorming” diagram, eduspaces.net
  1. Decide on upon areas of focus: establish personal goals for learning. A PLE is holistic, and can include professional and personal interests.
  2. Determine which Web 2.0 tools to use: A PLE requires use of Web tools and applications to create a personal and virtual learning space. A PLE is also dynamic—the learner is an active participant and doing the three key functions: Collect and curate relevant content, resources into a meaningful collection in a virtual space, Construct and create to develop new knowledge and understanding. This could be through blogs, Slideshare presentations, Wikis etc. Sharing is inherent to a PLE, learning does not happen in a vacuum, but involves communicating with others. Another phase in a PLE is collaborating, working with peers to create new knowledge through digital objects, documents, etc. Start slow, it takes time to learn a new application and build and develop content and resources.
  3. Establish time each week to developing the PLE. It takes time to develop and grow a robust PLE.
  4. Create a diagram of the PLE. The purpose of the diagram is to provide a framework for learning goals, identify tools and provide a digital footprint and record of the PLE.

Closing Thoughts

  • PLEs are dynamic, they change and adapt to learning needs and goals.
  • Start small – developing a PLE takes time.
  • If you are able, share your thoughts or diagrams – I am sure readers would appreciate hearing from other educators.

To read the follow-up post on Personal Learning Portfolios and how to create on, click here.

Resources:

Photo Credit: Learn, by Marc Brannan, Flickr

One Essential Resolution for Educators in 2013 – A Personal Learning Environment

This is part one of a three-part series for educators that describes how to create a rich, robust learning network and virtual space—a personal learning environment that supports professional and personal enrichment for lifelong learning.

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PLE, Francesc Esteve, FLICKR

I plan to embrace 2013 with a new focus and direction, an emphasis that is different from a resolution. Resolutions don’t work, yet I still look forward to each New Year with a sense of anticipation, energy and a new plan. This year is no exception. I’ve spent much time considering carefully where I want to invest my time and energy, and it begins with a personal learning environment (PLE). A PLE is the hub of personal and professional development, and what better time than the New Year to commit to a renewed focus on one’s personal development.

This year I’ve selected three areas to focus on, of which I’ll write more about in the coming weeks, but the fulcrum of all projects is my personal learning environment. In this post I’ll share briefly what a personal learning environment is, why it is an essential dimension to any educator’s personal profile, share examples of other educators PLEs, and in parts two and three will explore how-to create a personal learning environment specific to educators.

Personal Learning Environment (PLE) Defined
A personal learning environment is a concept, not a thing or an event, but encompasses formal and informal learning experiences and interactions with various resources and people through a network of Web 2.0 platforms. It becomes a system that each individual [learner] manages, creates and builds, a learner centered, self-directed environment.

Personal Learning Environments (PLE) are systems that learners create and control to manage and direct their own learning. In this environment learners do the following:

  • set their own learning goals
  • manage their learning, both content and process
  • communicate with others in the process of learning  [modified from Wikipedia]

Part of the PLE is a Personal Learning Network, which is an essential sub-system of the PLE. It is the people, the personal connections within one’s PLE that are sources for new knowledge, collaboration partners, and serve as ‘nodes’ within the personal network that contributes to the wholeness of the PLE. Individuals become interdependent within a PLE, not independent [learning in a vacuum] or dependent [consuming knowledge only, and not creating knowledge].

Lifelong Learning
Lifelong Learning (Photo credit: Stephen Downes)

A Model for Life-Long Learning
The concept of a personal learning environment is based on the premise of lifelong learning, and [obviously] not a new idea given the history of the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom by Socrates and his followers. Yet a model for life-long learning was formalized as recently as 2007 by the Eurpoean Union with the launch of the Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013, with its primary goal to support the development of quality lifelong learning across four phases: K-12, higher education, vocational training and adult education. The focus of the adult education phase is on the development of a network between people, institutions and other countries in education and training.

Examples of PLEs
Despite several excellent projects resulting from the efforts of the Eurpoean Union, describing how to create, build and interact within a personal learning environment is somewhat difficult to outline as I’ve discovered as I write this post. Mostly because PLEs are personalized, open, dynamic and unique to each person. Furthermore, environments take time to develop and are dependent on the motivation of the learner, and the direction and goals of him or her— all of which contribute to unique systems.

Below is an excellent example of a PLE where the learner describes the functions within her PLE, and the tools used for each.

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Michele Martin’s PLE, The Bamboo Project Blog, April 2007

Click here to view more examples of visual representations of PLE’s from other lifelong learners. The visual images are representative of the model or framework of each learners’ PLE, showing the Web 2.0 platforms used to catalogue, curate, develop, create, connect, record and/or save an individuals work, personal connections and knowledge created.

Next Steps for PLE
Over the next two postings I will provide guidelines and suggestions for how to develop a PLE, though my experience is limited, I will share how I have started to develop my PLE,  share resources and tools that may be of support to readers wanting to further develop their own. I would welcome any feedback or suggestions from readers, so please comment and share on your experience with PLEs if you are able to. Happy New Year!

Resources:

‘The List’ for Educators: How to Find Almost Anything in Less than Three Clicks

3433081165_93315c9243_z ‘The List’ that provides educational resources at the finger tips—no searching, in less than three clicks—find instructive, rich content for instructional or personal use.

Something fresh, a collection of links that will direct readers to sites brimming with quality content in a breadth of disciplines. While participating in the MOOC over the past two weeks, Open Educational Resources 12 [OER] and reviewing comments from educators from various sources, I realized that finding open education resources is not only time-consuming, but can be a daunting task. Where does one begin? Even though numerous platforms are striving to streamline the search process for educators, it is a challenge. Resources are often buried deep, may take at least five clicks [if not more] to unearth something relevant. It can feel like being lost in a labyrinth of content.

Once it became apparent that numerous educators have similar challenges, time and a starting point for locating resources, I decided to create a list of links, categorized and organized in such a way that finding a tool, resource or content source is simple, easy and [hopefully] productive. With an upcoming break for the holidays, I hope you might have time to explore and locate at least one resource to incorporate into an online or face-to-face class, find something to spark an idea for instruction, or even for your personal and professional development. Enjoy!

How-to-Find: Movie Clips, Full length Movies, or Instructional Videos

  • MOVIECLIPS: Over 12,000 movie clips, to search for, find, view, discuss and share scenes from favorite movies. MOVIECLIPS has made movies searchable by actor, title, genre, occasion, action, mood, character, theme, setting, prop, and even dialogue. Also, clips are ‘legal’ and free to every user.

    Reel of Film
    Source: Free Images.co.uk
  • Khan Academy: Some educators are not fans of Khan academy [not sure why], yet the collection is an excellent supplemental resource to direct K-12 and college level students to for ‘extra’ help with key concepts, in math, science, U.S. government, finance and more. We use Khan academy as a resource in our college level math  and US Government courses. Feedback from students is very positive.
  • 500 Free Movies Online: Great Classics, Indies, Westerns. The collection is divided into the following categories: Comedy & Drama; Film Noir, Horror & Hitchcock; Westerns & John Wayne; Silent Films; Documentaries, and Animation.

How-to Find:  e-Books or Audio Books

  • 375 Free e-books [Open Culture]: Download to Kindle, iPad, iPhone and Nook:  An excellent list of books, mostly Literature Classics, i.e. Chaucer, Tolstoy, Austen, Dewey and more.
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    Open, by opensourceway, Flickr

    Open, by opensourceway

  • 450 Free audio books:  [Open Culture] Download hundreds of free audio books, mostly classics to your MP3 player or computer. Includes great works of fiction, non-fiction and poetry.
  • 160 Free Textbooks: [Open Culture] Open textbooks written by knowledgable scholars are a relatively new phenomenon. Below, find a meta list of 150 Free Textbooks, and check back often for new additions.
  • Project Gutenberg is the first online collection of free electronic books. Michael Hart, founder of Project Gutenberg continues to maintain the site, and continues to build the database. There are over 40,000 free e-books to download.

How-to Find: Open Access Journals

  • Directory of Open Access Journal. Free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals, covering a breadth of subjects and in six languages. Click on subject of interest, next click to expand subject tree.
  • Education Research Global Observatory ERGO is a project on the National Education Policy Center at the University of Colorado, Boulder. As a signatory to the Budapest Open Access Initiative, ERGO is dedicated to the promotion and dissemination of open access scholarship in education
  • Educational Technology Journals provided by Northern Illinois University, Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center. Comprehensive collection of links to journals pertaining to educational technology and online learning.

How-to Find an Image: Photos or Illustrations

  • Humanline.com, just launched this tremendous site of high-quality, free images related to civilization’s history, art and science. An educator’s dream! Excellent site.
  • Microsoft Office Online provides downloadable clip art, photos, illustrations and even sound clips for free. Though the selection is somewhat limited, there are several excellent choices.

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    Source: Microsoft Office Online
  • Open ClipArt is the largest collaborative community that creates, shares and remixes clip art. All clip art is released to the public domain and may be used in any project for free with no restrictions.
  • Free Images.co.uk is a  high quality resource of digital stock photographic images for use by all. All images in the collection are free to use on websites, printed materials and anywhere you need photos for illustration and design use.

How-to Find Open Courses

  • The No Excuse List: A list of free courses available on the Internet from a vast list of providers by subject area.
  • The Open University: The first university to offer courses that we now are calling MOOCs. Incorporated by Royal Charter, an exempt charity in England & Wales and a charity registered in Scotland. Open University offers many short courses, including teacher skills training.

How-to Find: A Resource Using Google Search in 60 seconds by educator David Wiley

Related Reading

Photo Credits: Magnifying, by Clover_1, Flickr  & Open, by opensourceway, Flickr

Pearls of the Week: The [Two] Skill Gaps and Innovative Solutions

Educators in the United States face not one but two skill gaps – the gap in skills high school seniors have when they start college and the second, when college graduates begin their first job and are not prepared to do the job they were hired for. This week I bookmarked [using Pearltrees] articles that provide a fresh perspective on these problems along with potential solutions. And just how big are these gaps? Difficult to pinpoint, but it’s not closing, it’s widening, furthermore the United States ranks far below other developed nations in academic performance on high-school science, math and reading assessments. But there is hope. I conclude by sharing reports of four innovative approaches to education reform that have great potential to address the void.

The First Gap: High School to College
SAT® Report: Only 43 Percent of 2012 College-Bound Seniors Are College Ready. The College Board. Though SAT scores fell for the second year in a row, the number of students taking the exam increased [some good news]. The latter fact may be a sign that more students may be interested in pursuing education beyond high school. However, the chances that these students won’t be prepared if and when they do get to college, is likely. On the writing skills portion of the test for example, students scored the lowest of any year since the writing section was introduced to the SAT in 2006.

We Need more Access to A.P. Classes to Boost College Degrees. (October, 2012). Gregg Fleisher. Hechinger Report. An answer to the problem of poor academic performance is to encourage high school students to take courses of more rigor suggests the author of this article. I agree. This is one approach to solve part of the problem, and a good starting point.  But it will not address the overall decline of high school student performance. Parental involvement is needed, as is an overhaul of the approach to educating young people, but this topic we’ll save for another post.

Rigor is Better. (2011). Mark Schneider. The Online Magazine of the American Enterprise Institute. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) conducted a comprehensive study on the transcripts of high school student course loads and student academic performance. The study found that students who took a rigorous curricula outscored students who took a below-standard curriculum by more than 40 scale points in math and science, yet only 13% of students take the “rigorous” curriculum. Hence the problem – and a complex one at that, with many stakeholders involved. However, knowing what works is the first step, getting more students on the ‘what works’ path is the next step.

The Second Gap: College to the Workforce
Skills Gap? Employers and Colleges Point Fingers at Each Other. (September, 2012). Jeff Selingo. The Chronicle of Higher Ed. Employers time and again say that college graduates are not prepared for work for which they were hired, and lack the required skills to be effective on the job (sound familiar?). Employers want newly hired graduates to be adaptable and have strong communication skills. Yet many employers claim that today’s college graduates lack interpersonal and problem solving skills, lack the ability to work in teams and cannot think critically or analytically. Though I am sure this concern has been voiced many times to educators in higher ed, it is quite distressing.

Academic Performance on an International Level
A National Report Card, Nicole, Allen (October, 2012) The Atlantic. An interesting article that provides a visual representation of dollars spent per pupil in each state (and district) and the ‘return’ on funds invested as evidenced by academic performance. But the most interesting data in this report is the ranking by country: student academic performance in writing, science and math at fifteen years of age as reported by the Program for International Student Assessment of 2009. Where does your country score? Click here to view the table.

Also included in report: More teaching is not always better. Average number of hours teachers instruct students.

Innovative Solutions to Education Reform

Inventing a New Kind of College:  No lecture halls, sports teams or library this college seeks to turn post-secondary education upside down. The approach is a novel one – “We removed the front so that we would move away from having one authority who disseminates knowledge,” says vice-chancellor Claudia Neuhauser. The goal is to put the focus “much more on the students,” she says. An innovative approach, though much easier in this case as the campus was built from scratch – in other words the school did not need to use existing infrastructure, which can be a significant barrier to change. Yet this college has definite potential to be a ‘new’ model for colleges of the future,

Partnership for 21st Century Skills: An organization (P21) advocating 21st century skill readiness for students in school districts across the United States. P21 and its members provide tools and resources to help  educators remain relevant by fusing the 3Rs with the 4Cs (Critical thinking and problem solving, Communication, Collaboration, and Creativity and innovation). While many leading districts and schools are already doing this, P21 advocates for local, state and federal policies that support this approach for every school. The P21 website provides examples of state projects and subsequent improvements to student performance.

Global Online Academy: An exciting and innovative approach to K12 education, this academy aims to provide a rigorous education that develops skills students need to be successful in the  21st century [think of what the employers are looking for as mentioned in the Skills Gap article]. Global Online Academy is a nonprofit, global partnership of ‘leading independent schools [currently there are 24 in the group] bringing intellectually rigorous programs and excellent teaching together’.

‘Gamification’ School Opens in LA: A school curriculum built on the concept of games? Yes – this ‘game-based’ school ‘Playmaker’ opened its doors in September with the help of GameDesk. This nonprofit organization develops game-based learning initiatives, and is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Game Desk focuses on ‘gamification’ of the classroom, where learning is driven and delivered through games and digital simulations. ‘Playmaker’ has enrolled thirty-eight, sixth graders, and will be working in partnership with New Roads independent schools in Northern California. It will be interesting to follow this initiative.

Photo Credit: Mind the Gap, by Buhsnarf, Flickr

To view my Pearltrees, please click here.

Pearls of the Week: News Educators Need-to-Know

Image representing Pearltrees as depicted in C...I’ve selected the weightiest of pearls [bookmarks] to share this week –  critical need-to-know information for educators about MOOCs and a new ed tech tool launched this week Google’s Course Builder. New developments in MOOCs are gaining momentum which are raising questions about credentialing in higher ed institutions, forcing discussions about their implications, and in some instances impacting policy decisions within universities. Course Builder on the other hand, may impact online education at a different level, and though this open-source software has garnered much attention and touted as a big opportunity for online education, I’m not convinced that this will be the case.

For those new to Pearltrees, pearls are bookmarks; noteworthy articles, blog posts and resources which I’ve collected and organized into a digital content collection tool Pearltrees. Pearling is the primary method I use to build my knowledge network. Click here to learn more.

MOOC Developments

1)  Moody’s: Massive open online courses carry mixed credit implications for Higher Ed.  Moody’s Investor Service, a respected research company that advises firms on credit ratings and financial risk, released a report this week, “Shifting Ground: Technology Begins to Alter Centuries-Old Business Model for Universities”. The fact that an investment advising service is weighing in on the MOOC discussion is significant – education is big business and MOOCs are the newest disruptor. Key points:

  • “Most universities will likely gravitate to a ‘mixed’ model that combines residential learning with the new technology, some will increasingly feature online course delivery, and some colleges may choose to create a niche by remaining focused solely on the traditional residential-classroom experience.”
  • “MOOCs and related technology have the potential to transform a university’s operations, academic and social programming, and pedagogical approach.”
  • The report is behind a pay wall – the price to download the full report is $550.00. Someone is making money from the MOOC movement. Click here to read the summary and/or to buy the report or here for the full article.

2)  A First for Udacity: A U.S. University Will Accept Transfer Credit for One of Its Courses. The decision by a university within the United States to accept transfer credit from a MOOC provider [Udacity] is big news. Colorado State University Global Campus announced last week that it will give full transfer credits (three credits) to students who successfully complete Introduction to Computer Science: Building a Search Engine offered by Udacity. Key points:

  • “Several European universities, including the University of Salzburg, the University of Freiburg, the Free University of Berlin, and the Technical University of Munich, have already given credit for an earlier Udacity course.” Click here for full story.
  • Related story: Colorado State to Offer Credits for Online Class, NYT

 3) edX Announces Option Of Proctored Exam Testing Through Collaboration With Pearson VUEWow. This is big news. edX, the joint online venture between Harvard, MIT and most recently UC Berkley, is planning on providing students with the option of taking a proctored exam at the end of a course (MOOC). The exam will need to be completed at a Pearson VUE testing center. When we consider the previous story about Udacity and colleges accepting credits from MOOCs, one can see the implications for higher education. Click here to read the Pearson VUE press release.

Google’s Course Builder

1) Google Releases Open-Source Online-Education Software. Google released an open-source platform this week, Course Builder which has the ability to create and host an online course on the Google platform. Here is Google’s statement, which accompanies the YouTube video introducing Course Builder.

Course Builder is our experimental first step in the world of online education. We hope you will use it to create your own online courses, whether they’re for 10 students or 100,000 students. Course Builder contains software and instructions for presenting your course material, including student activities and assessments ….To use it effectively, you should … [have] familiarity with HTML and JavaScript.”

I am a bit puzzled by this tool –  who really is the target market for Course Builder?  It seems to me that with so many other options available, and many already in place, why would one use Course Builder? Another consideration is users must have skills equivalent of a Web Master, know HTML and JavaScript to work with it.  I read an informative blog post by Phil Hill at e-literate about Course Builder, and he suggests that Google’s strategy is to break into the market of hosting MOOCs for big universities and MOOC providers with this application. This makes sense, given that most of the business of hosting MOOCs is currently with Amazon’s Web Services infrastructure. As I’ve said before, education is big business. Click here to read Phil Hill’s post.

If there is one thing that is constant, it is change. To view my entire collection of Pearls, visit my Pearltree page, which is open to anyone.

Pearls of the Week: Perspectives on Education from the US, UK and Canada

Pearl nl: Parels de: Perlen

In this post I’ll share a selection of pearls [bookmarks] of thought-provoking articles I collected this week about current issues in higher education and K12 in United States, UK and Canada. What makes this collection interesting is the contrast in perspectives on education between the three countries. Though the articles present a position taken by the given author on an educational issue, and are not necessarily representative of all issues within the nation, I found the contrast and perspectives most interesting in light of the challenges in education that the US is dealing with. A summary of each article/resource with the corresponding link to each follows.

Note on ‘Pearls’: My pearls [bookmarks] are the best of articles, posts or learning opportunities on the Web that I’ve encountered. I use the [Beta] Pearltrees application. In a previous post I described how I use Pearltrees for cataloguing and archiving digital information for my work and personal projects, click here to read the post.

1) The Wall Street Journal: The ‘crisis’ in Higher Ed continues, in the US at least…

We’ve been hearing much about the rising cost of higher education – in this article readers are given hard data that reveals the financial impact of college costs for the upper middle class. According to the Federal Reserve, upper income households experienced the most significant increase of student loan debt load to household income from 2007 to 2010. Though a concern, my feeling is that parents in this echelon will continue to shell out for the ‘name brand’ universities — for the short-term at least. Time will tell. Read more in College Debt Hits Well-Off, by Ruth Simon and Rob Barry.

2) The New York Times: The ‘crisis’ is not only in Higher Ed —  K12 education is not immune…

Thomas Friedman author and columnist of the NYT writes why the US should be [very] concerned about the state of elementary education as it stands today. Friedman is frank, and discusses how America is losing its competitive edge – is becoming ‘average’ in the International realm of [elementary and high school] academic performance.

The US scores very poorly on International test scores in comparison to other developed nations.  From my own experience, when I speak with parents about the International test scores, most are unaware of that the US fairs so poorly in comparison to other countries, and are shocked that we are average if not below average in comparison. Read more in Average is Over, Part II, by Thomas Friedman. To view International results of K12 performance, click here.

3) The Globe and Mail, Canada.  Canada does not face a financial crisis in higher ed as the US does – university costs are far lower than in the United States. The priority for the  Government [Ontario Government in this article] contrasts a great deal with the educational emphases of the US and even the UK.

This article focuses on reforms needed in higher education as emphasized in a government paper on post secondary education reform. What where the top three issues?  “A system transformation;” 1) a move in some programs to three-year degrees; 2) greater use of “technology-enabled” learning; and 3) a much simpler mechanism for transferring course credits between college and university.  Read more in Changing postsecondary education must be a collective process, by Daniel Woolf.

4) The Globe and Mail, Canada.  I can’t seem to get away from the barrage of articles about MOOCs or Massive Open Online Courses from American sources, yet the media coverage and conversation is tame in Canada in comparison.

I read this article in the Globe while on holidays in Canada [my home country] this past week, and realized how the discussion of MOOCs and their role (or NOT) in higher ed is so not on the radar in Canada. The article illustrates how the idea of a MOOCs is so very new, it is neutral, a non issue. The journalist, Margaret Wente methodically educates the reader on this novel concept of Online University for the Masses.Read more in Online University for the Masses, by Margaret Wente.

5) The Guardian, United Kingdom: Meanwhile, across the Atlantic….

I enjoyed this article immensely. I like the position this author presents on higher education – he emphasizes research, change, and the need for higher education to collaborate with businesses. Written by chemistry professor Stephen Caddik at the University College of London, the article is realistic, positive and optimistic. Caddik highlights the value of people, the need for continued innovation, and an investment in Universities. Caddik closes with “we have the opportunity of a generation to build a sustainable economy for the 21st century – but we need to open our eyes and seize the opportunity.” Hear, hear – this is applicable to all nations.

Going for broke: how universities can deliver on their economic potential. by Professor Stephen Caddik.

Image representing Pearltrees as depicted in C...
Image via CrunchBase

My Pearltrees are work in progress, though if you’d like to view my collection, please click here.Thanks for reading.